NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values.
Prepared by: Rosmarie A. Faust, Ph.D., Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication Group Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division, *.Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Prepared for: Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program.
*Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400.
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, a crystalline solid with a chemical formula of C22H12 and a molecular weight of 276.3, is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). There is no commercial production or known use of this compound (IARC, 1983). Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene is found in fossil fuels and occurs ubiquitously in products of incomplete combustion (IARC, 1983) and has been identified in soils, groundwater, and surface waters at hazardous waste sites (ATSDR, 1990).
No absorption data were available for indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene; however, by analogy to structurally-related PAHs, primarily benzo[a]pyrene, it would be expected to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and skin (EPA, 1991). In vivo metabolites identified in mouse skin include the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol and 8- and 9-hydroxy forms of indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (Rice et al., 1986). Similar metabolites were formed in vitro in rat liver microsomes (Rice et al., 1985).
No data were found concerning the acute, subchronic, chronic, developmental, or reproductive toxicity of indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene. Because of a lack of toxicity data, an oral reference dose (RfD) or inhalation reference concentration (RfC) has not been derived (EPA, 1994).
No long-term oral or inhalation bioassays were available to assess the carcinogenicity of indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene. The compound was tested for carcinogenicity in dermal application, lung implant, subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection studies. Dermal application of 0.1-0.5% solutions of indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene in acetone produced skin papillomas and carcinomas in mice (Hoffmann and Wynder, 1966). In initiation-promotion assays, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene was active as an initiator of skin carcinogenesis (Hoffmann and Wynder, 1966; Rice et al., 1986). Dose-related increases of epidermoid carcinomas of the lungs were reported in rats receiving single lung implants of 0.16-4.15 mg indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (Deutsch-Wenzel et al., 1983). Injection site sarcomas developed in mice given three s.c. injections of 0.6 mg indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (Lacassagne et al., 1963). The compound was not tumorigenic when newborn mice received 2.1 mol indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene via i.p. injection (LaVoie et al., 1987).
Based on no human data and sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity in animals, the United Stated Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has assigned a weight-of-evidence classification of B2, probable human carcinogen, to indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (EPA, 1994).Retrieve Toxicity Profiles Formal Version
Last Updated 2/13/98